Vaccinations

Parvovirus Infection

Canine parvovirus infection is a serious disease which has spread rapidly through the canine population. 

Parvovirus is spread by the faeces of infected dogs. The faeces of an infected dog can have a high concentration of viral particles. Susceptible animals become infected by ingesting the virus, simply sniffing at the stool of an infected dog. Subsequently, the virus is carried to the intestine where it invades the intestinal wall and causes inflammation.

 

Unlike most other viruses, Parvovirus is stable in the environment and is resistant to the effects of heat, detergents, and alcohol. Parvovirus can live on the soil or in your backyard for more than 12 months. Indoors viral particles live for about three months. Parvovirus has been recovered from dog faeces even after three months at room temperature. Due to its stability the virus is easily transmitted via the hair or feet of other cats or dogs, contaminated shoes, clothes, and other objects. Direct contact between dogs is not required to spread the virus. Not all dogs that have the virus will show any symptoms, they may simply carry and spread the disease without any signs. Dogs that become infected with the virus and show clinical signs will usually become ill within 5-10 days of the initial infection.

Once infected the clinical manifestations of Parvovirus disease are somewhat variable, but generally take the form of severe vomiting and diarrhoea. The diarrhoea may or may not contain blood. Additionally, affected dogs often exhibit a lack of appetite, depression, and fever. It is important to note that many dogs may not show every clinical sign, but vomiting and diarrhoea are the most common signs; vomiting usually begins first. Parvo may affect dogs of all ages, but is most common in dogs less than one year of age. Young puppies less than five months of age are often the most severely affected and the most difficult to treat.

As with any viral disease there is no treatment to kill the virus once it infects the dog. However, the virus does not directly cause death; rather, it causes loss of the lining of the intestinal tract. This results in severe dehydration, electrolyte (sodium and potassium) imbalances, and infection in the bloodstream (septicaemia). It is when the bacteria that normally live in the intestinal tract are able to get into the blood stream, that it becomes more likely that the animal will die.

The first step in treatment is to correct dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. This requires the administration of intravenous fluids containing electrolytes. Antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs are given to prevent or control septicemia. Antispasmodic drugs are used to inhibit diarrhoea and vomiting that perpetuate the problems. Most dogs with Parvovirus infection recover if aggressive treatment is used and if therapy is begun before severe septicaemia and dehydration occur. For reasons not fully understood, some breeds, notably the Rottweiler, have a much higher fatality rate than other breeds.

Of course, prevention is always better than cure. If you love your dog you will want to protect them !

The most popular method of protecting dogs against Parvovirus infection has been vaccination. Calanclan puppies receive a parvovirus vaccination as part of the core vaccines administered at 6 weeks. They are then required to maintain strict quarantine. They then receive C3 core vaccines again between 12 and 14 weeks of age. 12 days after that final vaccine they are protcted for life. 

A QUICK GUIDE TO COMPARING YOUR DOG’S VACCINE SCHEDULE TO CURRENT RESEARCH.

ARE YOU VACCINATING YOUR DOG TOO MUCH?

 

Unnecessary vaccines place your dog at unnecessary risk for vaccine related health issues. This quick guide will help you decide if your dog is being vaccinated more often than research shows is necessary.

 

It turns out that all vaccines were labelled with the statement ‘‘Annual Revaccination Recommended’’ without really knowing whether the true duration of immunity (DOI) was a year or a lifetime. So vets vaccinated yearly, even though observation suggested that immunity after both natural infection and vaccination was long lived.

In the mid 1970’s, veterinary immunologist Dr Ronald Schultz and his cohorts questioned this and began researching how long vaccines really lasted.

Research was initiated at this time to prove that the duration of immunity is in fact much more than 1 year. Turns out that dogs challenged with exposure to distemper, adenovirus and par- vovirus 15 years after vaccination, showed that every single dog was protected when exposed to the virus.

 

The results from this testing clearly demonstrated that live vaccines provided immunity for at least 15 years against Parvovirus (distemper) and Ardenovirus”

 

In 2003 it was recommend a 3 year revaccination schedule for core vaccines was a compromise and three yearly revaccination was then considered protective.

THERE IS NO SCIENCE BEHIND THE THREE-YEAR RECOMMENDATION...

Studies were continued and by 2006, several additional studies on over 1,000 dogs had been repeated with the same results over and over again, effectively showing that dogs were protected for much longer than three years and most likely for the life of the dog.

In fact the doctors conducting this work, have modified their own vaccination protocol for their dogs to one single shot of distemper, parvovirus and adenovirus and none thereafter.

LIFELONG IMMUNITY WAS PROVEN!

COMMON REACTIONS TO VACCINATIONS INCLUDE:

  • LETHARGY

  • HAIR LOSS

  • HAIR COLOR CHANGE AT INJECTION SITE

  • FEVER

  • SORENESS

  • STIFFNESS

  • REFUSAL TO EAT

  • CONJUNCTIVITIS SNEEZING

  • ORAL ULCERS

  • MODERATE REACTIONS

  • IMMUNOSUPRESSION

  • BEHAVIORAL CHANGES

  • VITILIGO

  • WEIGHT LOSS

  • REDUCED MILK PRODUCTION

  • LAMENESS

  • GRANULOMAS/ABSCESSES

  • HIVES

  • FACIAL EEDEMA 

  • RESPIRATORY DISEASE

  • ALLERGIC UVEITIS (BLUE EYE)

  • SEVERE REACTIONS

  • ANAPHYLAXIS

  • ARTHRITIS, POLYARTHRITIS

  • IMMUNE MEDIATED THROMBO- CYTOPENIA

  • HEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORN

  • THYROIDITIS

  • GLOMERULONEPHRITIS DISEASE OR ENHANCED DIS- EASE WHICH WITH THE VACCINE WAS DESIGNED TO PREVENT MYOCARDITIS

  • POST VACCINAL ENCEPHALITIS OR POLYNEURITIS SEIZURES

  • ABORTION 

  • CONGENITAL ANOMALIES 

  • EMBRYOIC/FETAL DEATH 

  • FAILURE TO CONCEIVE


 

 

“Core vaccines, once administered to puppies at 12 to 14 weeks of age, provide lifetime immunity.”

Research shows that over 95% of puppies vaccinated before they are 4mths old will be protected FOR LIFE.